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Alarm Of Catherine And The Growth Of Lutheranism

Absolution Of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald For The Murder Of The Archbishop Of Dublin

Anger Of Anne Boleyn And The Duke Of Norfolk

Anne Boleyn Chosen By Henry To Succeed Catherine

Unpopularity Of Anne Boleyn And Removal Of Catherine From The Court

The Divorce

The Court At Blackfriars

Danger Of Challenging The Papal Dispensing Power

Determined Attitude Of The Princess Mary

Death Of Archbishop Warham And The Pope Urged To Excommunicate Henry But Refuses Angering The Queen

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Expectation That Henry Would Return To The Roman Communion

Intended Escape Of The Princess Mary Out Of England

Competition For Henry's Hand

Anne Sentenced To Die

The Pope's Authority Abolished In England

Illness Of The Princess Mary

Coronation Of Anne Boleyn

Illness Of Queen Catherine

Likelihood Of A Separation Of The King From Anne

Warlike Resolution Of The Pope Restrained By The Cardinals

Danger Of Challenging The Papal Dispensing Power

The question whether the Pope had power to license marriages within the
forbidden degrees affected interests immeasurably wider than the domestic
difficulties of Henry VIII. Innumerable connections had been contracted,
in reliance upon Papal dispensations, the issue of which would be
illegitimate if the authority was declared to be insufficient. The Emperor
himself was immediately and personally concerned. Emmanuel of Portugal had
been three times married. His first wife was Isabel, daughter of Ferdinand
and Isabella, Catherine's sister and Charles's aunt. His second wife was
her sister Maria; his third, Charles's sister Eleanor. Charles's own
Empress was the child of the second of these marriages, and they had all
been contracted under dispensations from Rome. A sudden change of the law
or the recognition in a single instance that the Pope's authority in such
matters might be challenged would create universal disturbance; and it was
not for Catherine's sake alone that the Emperor had so peremptorily
resisted Henry's demand. The difficulty would have been evaded had
Catherine agreed to take the vows; and Henry himself, when Catherine
refused, had been so far conscious of the objection that he had hitherto
based his demand on the irregularity of the original Bull of Pope Julius.
Clement had said often that a way could be found if Charles would consent;
but Charles had not consented. In England, the marriage having been once
challenged, a decision of some kind was necessary to avoid a disputed
succession, and larger issues had now to be raised. The Emperor having
dismissed the English Embassy at Bologna with scant courtesy, the Pope, as
we have seen, had fallen back secretly on his old wish that Henry would
take the matter into his own hands, disregard the inhibition, and marry as
he pleased, without throwing the responsibility on himself. Henry,
however, after the assurances which the Pope had given him, was determined
that he should not escape in this way. He had gained or extorted a
favourable opinion from his own learned corporations. Francis had assisted
him to a similar opinion from the University of Paris. Confident in these
authorities, a great body of English peers, spiritual and temporal, now
presented a formal demand to Clement that the King's petition should be
conceded, and intimated that if it was again refused they must seek a
remedy for themselves. Wolsey himself signed, for the petition was drawn
in the summer before his death. Archbishop Warham signed, followed by
bishops, abbots, dukes, earls, and barons. Some, doubtless, had to strain
their consciences, but the act as a whole must be taken as their own. The
King, unless he was supported by the people, had no means of forcing them
or of punishing them if they refused. Norfolk still laboured desperately
to work upon Chapuys. He told him, before the address was despatched,
that, as there seemed no other way of bringing the business to an end, he
would sacrifice the greater part of what he owned in the world if God
would be pleased to take to himself the Queen and his niece also, for
the King would never enjoy peace of mind till he had made another
marriage, for the relief of his conscience and the tranquillity of the
realm, which could only be secured by male posterity to succeed to the

The King, Norfolk said, could not plead at Rome, which was garrisoned by a
Spanish army, and the Pope would do the Emperor's bidding if it was to
dance in the streets in a clown's coat; the Queen objected to a trial in
England; but could not a neutral place be found with impartial judges?
Might not the Cardinal of Liege be trusted, and the Bishop of Tarbes?

The blunt and honest Norfolk was an indifferent successor to the dexterous
Cardinal. To wish that Catherine and Anne Boleyn were both dead was a
natural, but not a valuable, aspiration. A neutral place of trial was, no
doubt, desirable, and the Cardinal of Liege might be admissible, but de
Tarbes would not do at all. "He had been one of the first," Chapuys
remarked, "to put the fancy in the King's head."

At Rome the diplomatic fencing continued, the Pope secretly longing to
"commit some folly" and to come to terms with Henry, while the Imperial
agents kept their claws fixed upon him. In October Mai reported that
Henry's representatives were insisting that Clement should dissolve the
marriage without legal process, on the ground that the kingdom must have
an heir, and because the King protested that he was living in mortal sin.
If this could not be done, the Pope should at least promise that if the
King married he should not be proceeded against. The Pope seemed too much
inclined to listen; but with Mai at his shoulder, he could not afford
to be valiant. He was made to answer that he had done his best; but he
could not reject the Queen's appeal; the King had not named a proctor to
appear for him, and therefore delay had been unavoidable; the threat of
the Peers in their address that unless the divorce was granted they would
seek a remedy elsewhere, was unworthy of them, and could not have been
sanctioned by the King; he had always wished to comply with the King's
requests when it could be done with justice.

True to his policy of doing nothing and trusting to time, Clement hoped to
tire Henry out by smooth words and hopes indirectly conveyed; but he was
slowly swept on by the tide, and, when forced to act at all, had to act at
Mai's dictation. The Nuncio in England had been too openly on Henry's
side. A change was necessary. John Casalis was recalled. The Baron de
Burgo was sent to succeed him, who was expected to be of sterner material.
Chapuys had ascertained from two legal friends in the House of Commons
that, when the next session opened, the divorce would be brought before
Parliament, and that Parliament would stand by the King; also that M. du
Bellay had come from Paris with promises from Francis to settle matters
with the Pope afterwards, if the King cut the knot and married.
Unless the Emperor gave way, of which there was no hope, or unless the
Pope dared the Emperor's displeasure, to which Clement was as disinclined
as ever, a breach with the Papacy seemed now unavoidable. His Holiness
still hoped, however, that there might be a third alternative.

The new Nuncio reached England in the middle of September. He reported
briefly that at his first interview the King told him that, unless the
cause was committed to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the English
Bishops, he would act for himself, since he knew that the Pope had
promised the Emperor to declare for the Queen. Chapuys supplied the
Emperor with fuller particulars of the interview. The Nuncio had declared
to the King that, in view of the injury likely to ensue to the authority
of the Church, "his Holiness would rather die or resign the Papacy than
that the cause should not be settled to the mutual satisfaction of those
concerned in it." The King, instead of replying graciously, as the Nuncio
expected, had broken into violent abuse of the Pope himself and the whole
Roman Court. The Church, Henry had said, required a thorough reformation,
and the Church should have it. The Pope alone was to blame for the
difficulty in which he found himself. He had sent him a brief from
Orvieto, admitting the divorce to be a necessity, and now he had promised
the Emperor, as he knew from good authority, that judgment should be given
for the Queen. He would not endure such treatment. He would never consent
that the cause should be decided at Rome, or in any place where either
Pope or Emperor had jurisdiction. It was an ancient privilege of England,
"that no cause having its origin in that kingdom should be advoked to
another." If the Pope would not do him justice, he would appeal to his
Parliament, which was about to assemble, and if the Emperor threatened
him with war, he hoped to be able to defend himself. The Nuncio had
deprecated precipitate action. If the King would only do nothing, the
Pope, he said, would pause also, till an amicable settlement could be
arrived at; but the King would promise nothing; "he would act as seemed
best to himself."

Henry being thus peremptory, Chapuys and the Nuncio had to consider what
was to be done. The Pope, before the Nuncio's despatch, had received
private advices from Wolsey, of which the Baron de Burgo had been
informed. The evil, Wolsey had admitted, was too far gone for gentle
treatment: it needed cautery and incision; but they must proceed
cautiously. If the Pope used threats, the King would go at once to
Parliament; there would then be war, in which France would take a part.
Might not a personal interview be brought about between the King and the
Emperor? The Nuncio could not see his way, but was willing to be guided by
Chapuys. Chapuys was for instant action on the Pope's part. Moderation, he
said, was useless. He believed (of course Wolsey had told him so) that, if
the Pope would deliver sentence at Rome immediately, the King would find
no one in the realm, or out of it, to help him in a quarrel against the
Church. The responsibility ought not to be thrown upon the Emperor. The
Pope must speak, and all good Catholics would be at his side. The
Nuncio agreed. The clergy in England were irritated and alarmed, and the
opportunity was favourable. The Nuncio and the Ambassadors decided between
them that the Pope was to be advised to end the cause at once, threaten
the King with excommunication, and let a copy of the brief be in England
before Parliament opened.

Chapuys, well as he thought that he understood England, had something to
learn about it which was to be a disagreeable surprise. He had imagined
that the Pope's authority, when boldly asserted there, had never been
successfully resisted. Tradition remembered Anselm and Becket. It had
forgotten the legislation of the Edwards and of Richard II. According to
Chapuys, the Pope was to issue a brief forbidding Parliament to meddle in
the divorce case. There were laws on the statute book which forbade the
interference of the Pope under any circumstances in the internal affairs
of the English realm. Should the Pope, by bull or brief, by presentation
to offices of the Church or by delegation of his authority, attempt to
exercise direct jurisdiction in England to the prejudice of the rights of
the Crown, all persons who introduced such bulls or briefs, who recognized
the Pope's pretensions or acted on his orders, fell under Praemunire--a
vague but terrible consequence, almost as fatal as a proved charge of
treason. The statutes had been long obsolete. The sword was in its
scabbard. Wolsey had forgotten their existence when he sought and accepted
the position of Legate of the Holy See. Henry had forgotten them when he
applied for a Legatine commission to try his cause in London. The clergy
who had claimed to be independent of the State, to be an imperium in
imperio with the Pope at their head, the officials who had made the name
of a Church court execrated in every county in England--all had forgotten
them. But the Acts themselves were unrepealed, and survived as a monument
of the spirit of a past generation. Doubtless it was known that the Pope
was being urged to violence. Doubtless it was known that large numbers of
the clergy were prepared to stand by him, in terror at the threatened
Reformation. The blow was to be parried by an appeal to the historical
precedents of the realm. These impatient persons were to learn that,
instead of joining in attack upon the King, they would have enough to do
to purchase their pardons for their own offences. The well-tempered steel
sprang to light again bright as ever, and while the Nuncio was dreaming of
excommunication and interdict, he learnt to his astonishment that the
subject coming before Parliament was not the divorce of the Queen, but the
position of the whole spiritualty of the realm.

By recognising Wolsey as Legate from the Holy See the entire clergy were
found to be under Praemunire. On the divorce, perhaps, or on
excommunication arising out of it, there might still have been a
difference of opinion in Parliament; but the Papal authority was now to be
argued there on the lines of the past development of English liberty.
Notice of what was coming was given at the beginning of October by a
proclamation warning all persons of the illegality of introducing briefs
from Rome. The Nuncio rushed to the council chamber; he saw the Dukes of
Norfolk and Suffolk; he asked passionately what was meant? what was the
Pope accused of? what English privileges had he violated? why had he not
been warned beforehand? The two Dukes answered "that they cared nothing
for Pope or Popes in England--not even if St. Peter himself came to life
again. The King was Emperor and Pope in his own dominions. The Pope was
alienating the English people, and, if he wished to recover their
affection, he must deserve it by attending to their petitions."

The Nuncio assumed a bold face and told them they would find themselves
mistaken if they thought they could intimidate the Holy See. He applied to
the King. Henry told him that nothing had been published to the Pope's
injury. He was merely using his prerogative to guard against opposition to
the ordinances which he had made, or was about to make, for the
reformation of the clergy. He had gone promptly to work, lest the Pope
should issue an inhibition. The Nuncio knew not what to make of it. Queen
Catherine was greatly disturbed; she feared the edict was a proof that the
King was not afraid of the Pope after all. On the whole, the Nuncio
considered that an attempt was being made to frighten him, and he sent off
fresh letters advising the Pope to proceed at once to pass sentence.

Henry was, in fact, checkmating them all. With the help of the revived
Statute of Provisors he was able to raise the whole question of the Pope's
authority in England without fresh legislation on present points of
difference. Parliament, which was to have met in October, was prorogued
till January, to mature the intended measures. The King went to Hampton
Court. He sent for the Nuncio to come to him. He told him that by the
citation to Rome the Pope had violated the privileges of sovereign
princes, and had broken the promise which he had given him in writing at
Orvieto. If the Pope showed no more consideration for him, he would have
to show that the Pope's pretension to authority was a usurpation, and very
serious consequences would then follow.

The King, the Nuncio said, spoke with much show of regret and with tears
in his eyes. He added that the present Parliament had been called at the
request of the nation for the restraint of the clergy. They were so hated
throughout the realm, both by nobles and people, that, but for his
protection, they would be utterly destroyed. He should wait to take action
till February, to see whether the Pope would meanwhile change his conduct
towards him.

Norfolk, to whom the Nuncio went next, gave him no comfort; he said that,
"though Queen Catherine was a good woman, her coming to England had been
the curse of the country;" God had shown his displeasure at the marriage
by denying the King a male heir; if the King should die without a son, old
feuds would be reopened and the realm would be plunged into misery. It was
not tolerable that the vital interests of England should be sacrificed to
the Emperor. He advised the Nuncio to use his influence with the Pope.
"The King's severity might then perhaps be modified."

One more direct appeal was made by Henry himself to Clement. "Finding his
just demands neglected, the requests of the King of France unattended to,
and the address of his nobles despised and derided," he perceived, he
said, that the Pope was wholly devoted to the Emperor's will, and
ordained, prorogued and altered to serve the times. He required the Pope,
therefore, to set down in writing his grounds for rejecting his suit. He
demanded once more that the cause should be heard in England before
indifferent judges. "The laws of the realm would not suffer the contrary;
he abhorred contention, but would not brook denial."

Queen Catherine was in despair. The hearing of the cause had again been
postponed at Rome. A party in her favour had been formed in the House of
Commons, but were at a loss what course to follow. If the Pope would give
a decision they would know what to do, but the delay of sentence seemed to
imply that he was himself uncertain where the right really lay. They
questioned Chapuys whether any directions had arrived from Rome on which
to rest their opposition, hoping perhaps that an inhibitory brief had been
issued. Opposition, they feared, would be useless without further action
at the Papal Court.

"The Pope," Chapuys said, "had been so dilatory and so dissembling that he
was not in favour with either side." A change was passing over public
feeling. Every day gave strength to the King's cause. Archbishop Warham,
who had been hitherto for the Queen, was beginning to waver, and even to
think that he might try the suit in his own court. The Queen, the
Nuncio, the Bishop of Rochester, and the friends who remained staunch to
her agreed unanimously that the boldest course would be the wisest.
Immediate sentence at Rome in the Queen's favour was the only remedy.
Gentleness was thrown away. Let the King see that the Pope was really in
earnest, and he would not venture to go further. Catherine herself wrote
to Clement with the passion of a suffering woman. "Delay," she said,
"would be the cause of a new hell upon earth, the remedy for which would
be worse than the worst that had ever yet been tried." She did not
blame the King. The fault was with the wicked counsellors who misled him.
Once delivered out of their hands, he would be as dutiful a son of the
Church as he had ever been.

It is noticeable throughout that each of the two parties assumed that the
Pope's judgment when he gave it must be on its own side. The King demanded
a sentence in favour of the divorce; the Queen and the Emperor a sentence
that the marriage was good. The Pope was to try the cause; but neither
admitted that the right or the wrong was doubtful, or that the Pope must
hear the arguments before he could decide. Doubtless they were justified
in so regarding the Pope's tribunal. The trial would be undertaken, if a
trial there was to be, with a foregone conclusion; but what kind of a
court of justice could the Rota be if it could be so spoken of, and its
master so be addressed?

Most idolatries pass through the same stage. The idol is whipped before he
is finally discarded. The Holy Ghost is still invited to assist the
Cathedral Chapters in the choice of a Bishop, but must choose the person
already named by the Prime Minister under pain of Praemunire. Men should
choose their idols better. Reasonable beings are not fit objects of such
treatment. Much is to be said in favour of stuffed straw or the graven
image, which the scourge itself cannot force to speak. Anne Boleyn was
jubilant. "She is braver than a lion," wrote Chapuys. She said to one of
the Queen's ladies that she wished all the Spaniards in the world were in
the sea. The lady told her such language was disrespectful to her
mistress. She said she cared nothing for the Queen, and would rather see
her hanged than acknowledge her as her mistress. Clement, goaded by
Micer Mai, issued at last a second brief, repeating the terms of the
first, again forbidding the second marriage, and threatening Parliaments,
Bishops, and Divines in England if they dared to interfere. But between a
brief and the execution of it was a long interval. Sentence on the
original cause he would not pass; and in leaving his final decision
doubtful he left opinion free to the rest of the world. The brief was to
be presented by the Nuncio. The Pope accompanied it with a deprecatory,
and not undignified, letter to Henry from himself. Chapuys feared
that "by his loose talk" Clement was secretly encouraging the King. The
brief might bring on a crisis. He did not relish the prospect of remaining
in England "in the boiling vortex likely to be opened." But as the Queen
insisted that he should stay, he pressed unceasingly for "excommunication
and interdict." "The Emperor might then make effectual war with the
English. They would lose their trade with Spain and Flanders, and the
disaffection to the King and Council would be greatly increased."

On the spot and surrounded by an atmosphere of passion, Chapuys was in
favour of war. The Emperor, still unwilling to part with the hereditary
friendship of England, was almost as reluctant as Clement. He had supposed
that Henry was influenced by a passing infatuation, that by supporting
Catherine he would please the greater part of the nation, and ultimately,
perhaps, secure the gratitude of Henry himself. He had not allowed for the
changes which were passing over the mind of the English people. He had not
foreseen the gathering indignation of a proud race jealous of their
liberties when they saw him dictating to the Spiritual Judge of Europe on
a question which touched their own security. But he had gone too far to
draw back. He found himself sustained, not only by Spanish opinion, but by
the part of his subjects about whom he had felt most uneasy. The Italian
universities had for the most part gone with Paris and declared against
the dispensing power. In Germany Henry had been disappointed. The King of
England had been an old antagonist of Luther. Sir Thomas More, as
Chancellor, had been enforcing the heresy laws against Luther's English
proselytes with increased severity. The Lutherans in turn declared
decidedly against Henry's divorce. The Emperor was their feudal sovereign.
They saw no reason for entering into a new quarrel with him on a cause
which, so far as they understood, was none of their own. Henry was
evidently alarmed. Chapuys reported that he was busy building ships,
casting cannon, repairing fortresses, and replenishing the Tower arsenal,
as if conscious that he might have serious work before him. The Emperor
still clung to the belief that he would be afraid to persevere, and
Chapuys himself began to think that the Emperor might be more right than
himself, and that the storm might pass off. No sign, however, appeared of
yielding. The new brief was known to have been issued, and to have been
forwarded to the Nuncio. Not contented with the warning already given by
proclamation, Norfolk on the 13th of January sent for Chapuys to draw his
attention once more to the law. The introduction of briefs from Rome
touching the honour and authority of the Crown was forbidden by Act of
Parliament. It was understood that "certain decretals" had been procured
by the Queen's friends, and were about to be published. The Duke desired
the Ambassador to know that if the Pope came in person to present such
briefs he would be torn in pieces by the people. It was not a new
question. Popes had tried in past times to usurp authority in England. The
King's predecessors had always resisted, and the present King would resist
also. Kings were before Popes. The King was master in his own dominions.
If any such decretal came into the Ambassador's hands, the Duke warned him
not to issue it.

Imperialist officials were more accustomed to dictate to others than to
submit to commands. Chapuys was brave, and, when occasion required, could
be haughty to insolence. He thanked the Duke for giving him the notice.
"He would not argue," he said, "on the authority possessed by Popes over
disobedient kings and kingdoms. It was a notorious fact in full practice
at that very time. His curiosity had not extended so far as the study of
the English statute book, and on such points he must refer the Council to
the Nuncio. For himself he could only say he thought they would have done
better if they had not given occasion for such 'briefs' from the Pope. The
Emperor would not consent to an unreasonable sentence against the King,
for he regarded him as his ally and friend, but he could assure the Duke
that if his master was to direct him to assist the publication of any
Papal brief in England he would unquestionably execute his Majesty's
commands. As to the nation at large, he did not think they would resist
the Pope's decretals. He thought, on the contrary, they would help their
execution with all their power. Truth and justice must reign everywhere,
even among thieves and in hell. The Church of Christ was never so
unprovided with defenders as to be unable to carry the world with her, and
the English would have no right to complain if the Emperor, having
exhausted all means of conciliation, caused justice to take her

Such language could bear but one meaning. Chapuys perhaps intended to
frighten Norfolk. The Duke was suspected to be less staunch in support of
the King than he professed to be in Council. The Duchess was a fiery
partisan of Catherine, and a close intimate of the Ambassador himself. He
thought that he had produced an impression; but Norfolk answered at last
that, "if the King could take another wife he certainly would;" the Pope
had no business to interfere, except in cases of heresy. To the
Nuncio the Duke gave the same warning which he had given to the
Ambassador, drawing special attention to the pains and penalties to which
disobedience would make him liable. The Nuncio answered, like Chapuys,
that at whatever cost he would obey the Pope's orders, and "would die if
necessary for his lord and master."

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