Louis Philippe's Visit





The Queen and the Prince returned to Windsor to receive a visit from Louis

Philippe. The King, who had spent part of his exiled youth in England,

had not been back since 1815, when he took refuge there again during "the

Hundred Days," after Napoleon's return from Elba and Louis XVIII.'s

withdrawal to Ghent, till the battle of Waterloo restored the heads of the

Bourbon and Orleans families to the Tuileries and the Palais Royal.



The King arrived on the 6th of October, accompanied by his son, the Duc de

Montpensier, M. Guizot, and a numerous suite. They had sailed from Treport

in the steamer Gomer, attended by three other, steamers, and

arrived at Portsmouth, where the Corporation came on board to present an

address.



The King answered in English, with much effusion and affability, shaking

hands with the whole batch of magistrates, telling those who were too slow

in removing their white gloves, "Oh! never mind your gloves, gentlemen,"

and recalling a former visit to Portsmouth when he was an exile. Prince

Albert and the Duke of Wellington went on board the steamer, when the

enthusiastic elderly gentleman saluted the Prince on both cheeks, to which

he submitted, though he did not reply in kind, contenting himself with

shaking his guest by the hand. It would seem as if the Prince had some

perception of the wiliness which was one quality of the big, bluff citizen

king, and of the discretion which must be practised in dealing with him,

no less than with the Russian bear. For in writing from Blair to a

kinswoman, in anticipation of the visit, the writer states, with a dash of

humour, that after a preliminary training on the sea, the bold deerstalker

and mountaineer would have to transform himself into a courtier to receive

and entertain a King of the French, and play the part of a staid and

astute diplomatist.



The king wore the French uniform of a Lieutenant-General--blue with red

facings. The moment he ascended the stairs of the jetty, he turned with

his hand on his heart and bowed to the multitude of spectators.



The Queen met her visitor in the grand vestibule fronting George the

Fourth's Gate at Windsor Castle; the Duchess of Kent and the ladies of the

Household, Sir Robert Peel and Lord Liverpool, and the officers of the

Household, were with her Majesty. The moment the carriage drew up, the

Queen advanced and extended her arms to her father's old friend. The two

sovereigns embraced, and she led the way to the suite of rooms which had

been previously occupied by the Emperor of Russia.



Lady Lyttelton has supplied her version of the arrival. "At two o'clock he

arrived, this curious king, worth seeing if ever a body was. The Queen

having graciously permitted me to be present, I joined the Court in the

corridor, and we waited an hour, and then the Queen of England came out of

her room to go and receive the King of France--the first time in history!

Her Majesty had not long to wait (in the armoury, as she received him in

the State apartments, his own private rooms; very civil); and from the

armoury, amidst all the old trophies and knights' armour, and Nelson's

bust, and Marlborough's flag, and Wellington's, we saw the first of the

escort enter, the Quadrangle, and down flew the Queen, and we after her,

to the outside of the door on the pavement of the Quadrangle, just in time

to see the escort clattering up and the carriage close behind. The old

man was much moved, I think, and his hand rather shook as he alighted, his

hat quite off, and grey hair seen. His countenance is striking--much

better than the portraits--and his embrace of the Queen was very parental,

and nice. Montpensier is a handsome youth, and the courtiers and ministers

very well-looking, grave, gentlemenlike people. It was a striking piece of

real history--made one feel and think much."



"He is the first king of France who comes on a visit to the sovereign of

this country," wrote the Queen in her Journal.... "The King said, as he

went up the grand staircase to his apartments, 'Heavens! how

beautiful!'.... I never saw anybody more pleased or more amused in looking

at every picture, every bust. He knew every bust, and knew everything

about everybody here in a most wonderful way. Such a memory! such

activity! It is a pleasure to show him anything, as he is so pleased and

interested. He is enchanted with the Castle, and repeated to me again and

again (as did also his people) how delighted he was to be here; how he had

feared that what he had so earnestly wished since I came to the throne

would not take place, and 'Heavens! what a pleasure it is to me to give

you my arm!'" The dinner was comparatively private, in the Queen's

dining-room.



On the 8th of the month the whole royal party went on a little pilgrimage

to Claremont and Twickenham, to the house in which Louis Philippe, as Duc

d'Orleans, had resided, and wound up the day by a great banquet in St.

George's Hall. The Queen records of this excursion, "We proceeded by

Staines, where the King recognised the inn and everything, to Twickenham,

where we drove up to the house where he used to live, and where Lord and

Lady Mornington, who received us, are now living. It is a very pretty

house, much embellished since the King lived there, but otherwise much the

same, and he seemed greatly pleased to see it again. He walked round the

garden, in spite of the heavy shower which had just fallen.... The King

himself directed the postillion which way to go to pass by the house where

he lived for five years with his poor brothers, before his marriage. From

here we drove to Hampton Court, where we walked over Wolsey's Hall and all

the rooms. The King remained a long time in them, looking at the pictures,

and marking on the catalogue numbers of those which he intended to have

copied for Versailles. We then drove to Claremont. Here we got out and

lunched, and after luncheon took a hurried walk in the grounds.... We left

Claremont after four, and reached Windsor at a little before six."



Of the conversation during the banquet her Majesty wrote, "He talked to me

of the time when he was 'in a school in the Grisons, a teacher merely,'

receiving twenty pence a day, having to brush his own boots, and under the

name of Chabot. What an eventful life his has been!" On the 9th there was

an installation of a Knight of the Garter. Sir Theodore Martin reminds his

readers, 'with regard to the ceremony, that it "must have been pregnant

with suggestions to all present who remembered that the Order had been

instituted by Edward III. after the battle of Cressy, and that its

earliest knights were the Black Prince and his companions, whose prowess

had been so fatal to France. "In the Throne-room, in a State chair, sat

Queen Victoria, in the (blue velvet) mantle of the Order, its motto

inscribed on a bracelet that encircled her arm; a diamond tiara on her

head. The chair of State by her side was vacant. Round the table before

her sat the knights-companions of the highest rank; on the steps of the

throne behind the Queen's chair were seated the high civil ministers of

the two sovereigns, and some officers of the French suite. At the

opposite end of the room were the royal ladies (members of the royal

family) and the two young Princes (the Duc de Montpensier and Prince

Edward of Saxe-Weimar) visiting at the Castle.... The King, dressed in a

uniform of dark blue and gold, was introduced by Prince Albert and the

Duke of Cambridge, preceded by Garter King-at-Arms, the Queen and the

knights all standing. The sovereign (Queen Victoria) in French announced

the election. The declaration having been pronounced by the Chancellor of

the Order, the new knight was invested by the Queen and Prince Albert with

the Garter and the George, and received the accolade."



"Albert then placed the Garter round the King's leg," wrote the Queen. "I

pulled it through while the admonition was being read, and the King said

to me, 'I wish to kiss this hand,' which he did afterwards, and I embraced

him."



"Taking the King's arm, her Majesty conducted him in state to his own

apartments," the Annual Register ends its account of an interesting

episode.



"At four o'clock we again went over to the King's room," wrote the Queen,

"and I placed at his feet a large cup representing St. George and the

dragon, with which he was very much pleased." That night there was a

splendid banquet in St. George's Hall to commemorate the installment.



On the 12th the King was to have left, but first the Corporation of London

went down to Windsor in civic state to present Louis Philippe with an

address. This unusual compliment from the City was due partly to the

general satisfaction which the visit, with, its promise of continued

friendly relations between England and France, gave to the whole country,

partly to the circumstance that it was judged inadmissible, in view of the

susceptibility of the French nation, for the King of France to pay a

formal visit to London, since the Queen of England, in her recent trip to

Treport, had not gone to Paris. A somewhat comical contretemps

occurred in the preparation of the reply to this address. It was written

by the person who usually acted for the King in such matters, and brought

to him shortly before the arrival of the Corporation, when Louis Philippe

found to his disgust that the speech was so French in spirit, and

expressed in such bad English, he could not hope to make it understood.

"It is deplorable.... It is cruel," cried the mortified King. "And to send

it to me at one o'clock! They will be here immediately!" No time was to be

lost; the King had to sit down and, with the help of his host and hostess,

who had come to his rooms opportunely, to write out a more suitable

answer.



In M. Guizot's "Memoirs" he tells a curious incident of this visit. On

retiring to his room at night he lost his way, and appeared to wander, as

Baroness Bunsen feared she might do on a similar occasion, along miles of

corridors and stairs. At last, believing he recognised his room-door, he

turned the handle, but immediately withdrew, on getting a glimpse of a

lady seated at a toilet-table, with a maid busy about her mistress's hair.

It was not till next day that from some smiling words addressed to him by

the Queen the horrified statesman discovered he had been guilty of an

invasion of the royal apartments.



Louis Philippe started on his homeward journey accompanied by her Majesty

and Prince Albert, who were to go on board the Gomer and there take

leave of their guest. Afterwards they were to embark in the royal yacht

and cross to the Isle of Wight. But the stormy weather overturned all

these plans. The swell in the sea was so great that it was feared the King

could not land at Treport. Eventually he parted from the Queen and the

Prince on shore, returned in the evening to London, went to New

Cross--where he found the station on fire--proceeded by train to Dover,

and sailed next day, amidst wind and rain, in French steamer to Calais. In

order to soften the disappointment to the officers and crew of the

Gomer, the Queen and Prince Albert breakfasted on board that vessel

before they proceeded to the Isle of Wight.



The cause of the cruise of the Queen and the Prince at this season was the

wish to see for themselves the house and grounds of Osborne, belonging to

Lady Isabella Blatchford. They were to be sold, and had been, suggested by

Sir Robert Peel to her Majesty and the Prince as exactly constituted to

form the retired yet not too remote country and seaside home--not palace,

for which the royal couple were looking out. It is unnecessary to say that

the personal visit was quite satisfactory, though the purchase was not

made till some months later. The engraving gives a pleasant idea of the

Osborne of to-day, with its double towers--seen out at sea--its terraces,

and its fountains.



On the 21st of October the Queen and the Prince happened to be yachting

off Portsmouth. It was the anniversary of the battle of Trafalgar, and the

Victory lay in the roads, adorned with wreaths and garlands from

stem to stern. The Queen expressed her desire to visit the ship. She went

at once to the quarter-deck to see the spot where Nelson fell. It is

marked by a brass plate with an inscription, on this day surrounded by a

wreath of laurel. The Queen gazed in silence, the tears rising to her

eyes. Then she plucked a couple of leaves from the laurel wreath, and

asked to be shown the cabin in which Nelson died. The cockpit was lit up

while the party were inspecting the poop of the Victory, which

bears the words of the great Admiral's last signal, "England expects every

man to do his duty." In the cockpit, long associated with merry,

mischievous sprites of "middies," there had been for many a year the

representation of a funeral urn, with the sentence, "Here Nelson died."

The visitors looked at the spot without speaking. There, on this very day

in the fast-receding past, amidst the hardly subdued din of a great naval

battle, the dying hero with his failing breath made the brief, tender

appeal to his faithful captain, "Kiss me, Hardy." The Queen requested that

there might be no firing when she left the ship, and was sped on her way

only by "the three tremendous British cheers of the sailors manning the

yards."



On the 28th of October the great civic ceremonies of the opening of the

new Royal Exchange by the Queen took place. The morning had been foggy,

but cleared up into brilliant autumn sunshine, a happy instance of the

Queen's weather, when a considerable part of the programme, as a matter of

necessity, was enacted under the open sky.



Crowds almost as great as on the day of the Coronation six years before

occupied the line of route, swarming in St. James's Park and St. Paul's

Churchyard and at Charing Cross, while the Poultry--deriving its name from

the circumstance that it was once filled with poulterers' shops--was

reserved for the Livery of the City Companies. Every window which could

command the passing of the pageant was filled with spectators. The Queen,

in her State coach, drawn by her cream-coloured horses, drove through the

marble arch at Buckingham Palace about eleven o'clock. She was accompanied

by Prince Albert, and attended by Lady Canning in the absence of the

Duchess of Buccleugh, Mistress of the Robes, and by the Earl of Jersey,

Master of the Horse. The great officers of her Household in long

procession preceded her, and she was followed by an escort of Life Guards.

At this time the Queen's popularity was a very active principle, though

not more heartfelt and abiding than it is to-day. As she appeared, it is

said the words "God bless you," uttered by some loyal subject, were caught

up and passed from lip to lip, running through the vast concourse. The

simply-clad lady of the Highlands was magnificently dressed to-day, to do

honour to her City of London, in white satin and silver tissue, sparkling

with jewels. On her left side she wore the star of the Order of the

Garter, and round her left arm the Garter itself, with the motto set in

diamonds. She had at the back of her head a miniature crown entirely

composed of brilliants, while above her forehead she wore a diamond tiara.

Prince Albert was in the uniform of a colonel of artillery.



The City magnates as usual had gathered at Child's Bank, from which they

went to Temple Bar. The common councilmen were in their mazarine-blue

cloaks and cocked hats, the aldermen in their scarlet robes, the Lord

Mayor in a robe of crimson velvet, with a collar of SS, and, strange to

say, a Spanish hat and feather. In truth a goodly show. The gates of

Temple Bar, which had been previously closed, were thrown open to admit

the royal procession. The Queen's carriage drew up. The Lord Mayor

advanced on foot before the spikes on which many a traitor's head had been

stuck, and with a profound reverence offered to her Majesty the City

sword, which, the Queen touched as a sign of acceptance, and then waved it

back to the Lord Mayor. Nothing can read better, but accidents will

happen.



From Lady Bloomfield, on the authority of the late Sir Robert Peel, who

told the story in the maid-of-honour's hearing, we have additional

particulars. The Lord Mayor, in his Spanish hat and feather, was at this

very moment in as awkward a predicament as ever befell an unlucky chief

magistrate. He had drawn on a pair of jack-boots over his shoes and

stockings, to keep the mud off till the moment of action. Unfortunately

the boots proved too tight, and could not be got off when the sign was

given that the Queen was coming. One of the victim's spurs caught in the

fur trimming of an alderman's robe, and rendered the confusion worse. The

Lord Mayor stood with a leg out, and several men tugging at his boot. In

the meantime the Queen was coming nearer and nearer; she was only a few

paces off, while the representative of her good City of London struggled

in an agony with one boot on and one off. At last he became beside

himself, and cried wildly, "For God's sake put that boot on again." He

only got it on in time to make his obeisance to her Majesty. He had to

wear the detestable boots till the banquet; just before it, he was

successfully stripped of his encumbrances.



As the procession went on, the civic body fell into its place, the Lord

Mayor on horseback, where his jack-boots would not look amiss, with three

footmen in livery on each side of him, carrying the City sword before the

Queen's coach.



The Royal Exchange, at the end of the Poultry, with the Mansion House on

the right and the Bank of England on the left, has been twice burnt. Sir

Thomas Gresham's Exchange, which was built after an Antwerp model, while

it bore the Greshams' grasshopper crest conspicuous on the front, was

opened by good Queen Bess, and perished in the Great Fire of London. This

building's successor was burnt down in 1838, one of the bells which rang

tunes pealing forth, in the middle of the fire, the only too appropriate

melody, "There's nae luck about the house." In the large cloistered court

of the present Royal Exchange, the stage of this day's festivities, stands

a statue of Queen Victoria. There is an allegorical figure of Commerce on

the front of the building. The inscription on the pedestal, selected by

Dean Milman, is due to a suggestion of Prince Albert's to the sculptor,

Westmacott, that there should be the recognition of a superior Power. The

well-chosen words declare "The earth is the Lord's and the fullness

thereof."



At the Royal Exchange the body of the procession went in by the northern

entrance, only to hurry to the western door to receive the Queen. She

entered the building leaning on the arm of Prince Albert, and the royal

standard was immediately hoisted. The procession was again formed. She

set forth "in slow State" to make her circuit of the roofless quadrangle,

round the corridor and through the inner court, all in the open air. At

the foot of the campanile the bells chimed for the first time "God save

the Queen." Her Majesty went upstairs and passed through the second

banqueting-room to show herself, then walked on to the throne-room, hung

with crimson velvet and cloth, and furnished with a throne of crimson

velvet. The Queen took her seat, Prince Albert standing on her right and

the Duchess of Kent and the Duke of Cambridge on her left, Sir Robert Peel

and Sir James Graham being near. The Lord Mayor and the rest of the

Corporation formed a semicircle facing the Queen. The Recorder read the

loyal and congratulatory address welcoming his sovereign, and recalling

Queen Elizabeth's visit to open the first Exchange. Did anybody remember

the picture of the Virgin Queen with the outshone goddesses fleeing

abashed before her virtues, with which the child-princess reared at

Kensington must have been familiar?



The speaker concluded by asking her Majesty's "favourable regard and

sanction for the work which her loyal citizens of London had now

completed." The Queen returned a gracious reply, gave the Lord Mayor her

hand to kiss, and doubtless consoled him for any misadventure by

announcing her intention to create him a baronet in remembrance of the

day.



In the great room of the underwriters, ninety-eight feet long by forty

wide, a dejeuner was served, at which the Queen, the Prince, the

Duchess of Kent, and the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, with other persons

of rank, including the foreign ambassadors and their wives, sat on the

dais at the cross-table. At the long table beneath the dais, among the

Cabinet ministers and their wives, members of Parliament, judges, the

Court of Aldermen, and many other distinguished and privileged persons,

sat Sir Robert and Lady Sale, in another scene than any they had known

among the defiles and forts of Afghanistan. The Bishop of London said

grace. The usual toasts, "Her gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria"--no longer

the young girl who bore her part so well at the Guildhall dinner, but the

woman in her flower, endowed with all which makes life precious--"Prince

Albert, the Prince of Wales, and the rest of the royal family," were

drunk, and replied to by the comprehensive wish, "Prosperity to the City

of London."



At twenty minutes after two the Queen and the Prince went downstairs again

to the quadrangle, in the centre of which her Majesty stopped, while the

Ministers and the Corporation formed a circle round her. The heralds made

proclamation and commanded silence; the Queen, after receiving a slip of

paper from Sir James Graham, announced in clear, distinct tones, "It is my

royal will and pleasure that this building be hereafter called "The Royal

Exchange." This ceremony concluded the day's programme, and her Majesty

left shortly afterwards. Great festivities in the City wound up the gala.

The Lord Mayor entertained at the Mansion House, the Lady Mayoress gave a

ball, the Livery Companies dined in their respective halls.



A little adventure occurred at the Opera in November, 1844. The Queen

went, not in State, or even semi-state, but privately, to hear Auber's

opera of "The Siren," when Mr. Bunn, the lessee, was found to have made

known without authority her Majesty's intention. The result was a great

house, but some inconvenience to the first lady in the land. The Queen was

called for, but declined to come forward, and for ten minutes there was a

commotion, the audience refusing to let the opera go on. At last the

National Anthem was played, the Queen showed herself, and this section of

her subjects was appeased and passed from clamorous discontent to equally

clamorous satisfaction.



During the winter Sir Robert and Lady Sale paid the Queen a visit at

Windsor, while Miss Liddell was maid-of-honour in waiting. The lively

narrator of the events of these days describes Lady Sale, as tall, thin,

and rather plain, but with a good countenance, while Sir Robert was stout.

Lady Sale told these wondering listeners, in a palace that she started

from Cabul in a cloth habit, which got wet the first day, and became like

a sheet of ice, while it was nine days before she could take it off. She

was wounded in the arm on the second day's march, the ball passing first

below the elbow and coming out at the wrist, while there were other balls

which passed through her habit; Mrs. Sturt's fatherless child, Lady

Sales's grand-daughter, was born in a small room without light and almost

without air. The captive ladies often slept in the open air on the snow,

with the help of sheepskins, half of which were under and half over the

sleepers. They washed their clothes by dipping them in the rivers and

patting the garments till they became dry. Sometimes the prisoners were

twenty-four hours without food, and when served it consisted of dishes of

rice with sheeps' tails in the middle, and melted fat like tallow poured

over them. The captivity lasted ten weary months, while the captives were

dragged from place to place, over fearful roads, amidst the snows of the

Caucasus. Lady Sale was told she was kept by Akbar Khan as a hold on her

"devil of a husband."





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