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Mary's Marriage Personal Appearance And Popularity

Mary The Queen Dauphiness The Queen And The Queen Dowager Of France

Occurrences Immediately Preceding Darnley's Death

An Examination Of The Letters Sonnets And Other Writings Adduced In Evidence Against Mary Queen Of Scots

A Tangle

The Little Waif

Rizzio

The Fall Of Bothwell

Mary's Birth And Subsequent Residence At The French Court

Mary's Escape From Lochleven And The Battle Of Langside



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Loch Leven Castle

The Ebbing Well

The Love Token

My Lady's Remorse

Queen Mary's Presence Chamber

Wingfield Manor

The Huckstering Woman

Mary's Eighteen Years' Captivity

Mary's Reception In England And The Conferences At York And Westminster

Return To Scotland






Mary The Queen Dauphiness The Queen And The Queen Dowager Of France








Shortly after the espousals, Mary and her husband retired to one of their
princely summer residences. Here she unostentatiously discharged the
duties of a respectful and attentive wife, in a manner which gained for
her the admiration of all who visited them. Delightful as society and
amusements must at that age have been to her, she readily accommodated
herself to the peculiar temper of Francis, and seemed willing, for his
sake, to resign all the gaieties of the court.

But the intriguing and restless ambition of her uncles could not allow her
to remain long quiet. About this time, Mary Tudor, who had succeeded
Edward VI. on the English throne, died; and although the Parliament of
that country had declared that the succession rested in her sister
Elizabeth, it was thought proper to claim for Mary Stuart a prior right.
The ground upon which they built this claim was the following. Henry VIII.
married for his first wife Catharine of Arragon, widow of his brother
Arthur, and by her he had one child, Mary. Pretending after having lived
with her eighteen years, that his conscience rebuked him for making his
brother's wife the partner of his bed, he procured a divorce from
Catharine for the purpose of marrying Anne Boleyn, by whom he had also one
daughter, Elizabeth. Growing tired of this new wife, she was sent to the
scaffold to make way for Jane Seymour, by whom he had one son, Edward. Of
this uxorious monarch's other three wives, it is unnecessary to speak.
Henry had procured from the British Parliament a solemn act, declaring
both his daughters illegitimate, and he left his crown to Edward VI., who
accordingly succeeded him. Upon Edward's death, the Parliament, rescinding
their former act, in order to save the nation from a civil war, called to
the throne Henry's eldest daughter Mary,--not, however, without a protest
being entered in behalf of the Scotch Queen by her guardians. Upon Mary's
death, the opportunity again occurred of pressing the claims of the
daughter of James V. The mother of that king, it will be remembered, who
married his father James IV., was the eldest daughter of Henry VII., and
sister, consequently, of Henry VIII. Henry was, therefore, Mary's maternal
grand-uncle; and if his wives, Catharine and Anne Boleyn, were legally
divorced, she had certainly a better right to the English Crown than any
of their illegitimate offspring. Soon after the accession, however, of
Edward VI., the Parliament, complying with the voice of the whole nation,
had declared them legitimate; and as Elizabeth now quietly took possession
of the throne, and could hardly by any chance have been dispossessed, it
was, to say the least, extremely ill-advised to push Mary forward as a
rival claimant.

For various reasons, however, this was the policy which the Guises chose
to pursue. Nor did they proceed to assert her right with any particular
delicacy or caution. Whenever the Dauphin and his Queen came into public,
they were greeted as the King and Queen of England; and the English arms
were engraved upon their plate, embroidered upon their scutcheons and
banners, and painted on their furniture. Mary's favourite device,
also, at this time, was the two crowns of France and Scotland, with the
motto, Aliamque moratur, meaning that of England. The prediction made by
the Duke of Alva, on observing this piece of empty parade, was but too
fatally fulfilled,--"That bearing of Mary Stuart's," said he, "will not be
easily borne."

About this time Mary seems to have been attacked with the first serious
illness which had overtaken her in France. It was not of that acute
description which confined her to bed, but was a sort of general debility
accompanied with a tendency to frequent fainting. It is mentioned in
Forbes's State Papers, that on one occasion, to prevent her from swooning
in church, her attendants were glad to bring her wine from the altar.
There were some at the French Court who would have felt little grief had
this illness ended fatally, considering how serious a blow Mary's death
would have been to the too predominating influence of the House of Guise.
In England, the news would have been particularly agreeable to Elizabeth,
whose ambassador at Paris eagerly consoled her with the intelligence that
Mary was not expected to be of long continuance. The natural strength of
her constitution, however, soon restored her to her former health and
spirits.

But it was destined that there was to be another and more unexpected death
at the French Court. Henry II., while exhibiting his prowess at a
tournament, on the occasion of the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth to
Philip of Spain, in July 1559, received a wound in the head from the spear
of his antagonist, the Count Montgomery, which, though apparently not of
much consequence at first, occasioned his dissolution eight days
afterwards. A considerable change immediately took place in the aspect of
the Court. The stars of the Duchess de Valentinois, and of the Constable
Montmorency, set at once; and that of Catharine de Medicis, though not
entirely obscured, shone lower in the horizon. She was now only the
second lady in France, Mary Stuart taking the precedence. The Guises
reigned along with her, and the House of Bourbon trembled. Catharine, who
could bear no superior, more especially one young enough to be her own
daughter, could ill disguise her chagrin. As a guardian, however, of her
late husband's younger sons, the presumptive heirs to the crown, she was
entitled to maintain her place and authority in the Government. There is a
curious little anecdote of her which shows how much the change in her
situation was preying on her mind. As she was leaving the Palace of the
Tournelles, to accompany Francis to the Louvre, where he was to appear as
the new Sovereign, she fell into a reverie, and in traversing the gallery,
took a wrong turn, and was entirely separated from her party before she
discovered her mistake. She soon overtook them, however, and as they
passed out, said to Mary,--"Pass on, Madam, it is now your turn to take
precedence." Mary accepted the courtesy, but with becoming delicacy
insisted that Catharine should enter the carriage first. There is
something more affecting in the change which Henry's death produced in the
condition of the venerable Montmorency and his family. He whom three
monarchs had loved and respected, who had given dignity to their counsels,
and ensured success to their arms, was not considered worthy of remaining
in the palace of the feeble and entrammelled Francis. With a princely
retinue, he retired honourably to his mansion at Chantilly.

Mary was now at the very height of European grandeur. The Queen of two
powerful countries--and the heir-presumptive of a third,--in the flower of
her age,--and, from her superior mental endowments, much more worshipped,
even in France, than her husband, she affords at this period of her
history as striking an example as can be found of the concentration of all
the blessings of fortune in one person. She stood unluckily on too high
and glorious a pinnacle to be able to retain her position long, consistent
with the vices vitae mortalium. Whilst she conducted herself with a
prudence and propriety altogether remarkable, considering her youth and
the susceptibility of her nature, she began to be regarded with suspicion
at once by France, England, and Scotland. In France, she was obliged to
bear the blame of many instances of bigotry and over-severity in the
government of her uncles;--in England, Elizabeth took every opportunity to
load with opprobrium a sister Queen, whose descent, birth, station, and
accomplishments, were so much superior to her own;--in Scotland, the
Reformers, inspired by James Stuart, who, with ulterior views of his own,
was contented to act as the tool of Elizabeth, laboured to make it be
believed that Mary was an uncompromising and narrow-minded Catholic.

In September 1559, Francis was solemnly crowned at Rheims; and during the
remainder of the season, he and Mary, attended by their nobles, made
various progresses through the country. In December, Francis, whose health
was evidently giving way, went, by the advice of his physicians, to Blois,
celebrated for the mildness of its climate. It affords a very vivid idea
of the ignorant superstition of the French peasantry to learn, that on
his journey thither, every village through which he passed was deserted.
An absurd story had been circulated, and was universally believed, that
the nature of Francis's complaints were such, that they could only be
cured by the royal patient bathing in the blood of young children. Francis
himself, although probably not informed of the cause, observed with pain
how he was every where shunned; and, notwithstanding the soothing
tenderness of Mary, who accompanied him, is said to have exclaimed to the
Cardinal Lorraine, "What have I done to be thus shunned and detested? They
fly me; my people abhor me! It is not thus that the French used to receive
their King."

Misfortunes, it is said, never come singly. Whilst Mary was performing the
part of an affectionate nurse to her husband, she sustained an
irretrievable loss in the death of her mother, the Scottish Regent, in
June 1560; and in the December following, her husband, Francis, died at
Orleans, in the 17th year of his age, and the 17th month of his reign.
Feeling that his exhausted constitution was sinking rapidly, and that his
death was at hand, almost the last words he spoke were to testify his
affection for Mary, and his sense of her virtues. He earnestly beseeched
his mother to treat her as her own daughter, and his brother to look upon
her as a sister. He was a prince, says Conaeus, in whom, had he lived,
more merit would probably have been discovered than most people
suspected. The whole face of things in France was by this event
instantly changed again. Francis the Little, as he was contemptuously
termed by the French, in opposition to his father Francis the Great, was
succeeded by his younger brother, Charles IX. He being still a minor, his
mother, Catharine, contrived to get herself appointed his guardian, and
thus became once more Queen of France, the nobility, as Chalmers remarks,
being more inclined to relish a real minority, than an imaginary
majority. Catharine's jealousy of Mary Stuart, of course extended
itself, with greater justice, to her uncles of Guise. It was now their
turn to make way for Montmorency; and the Cardinal of Lorraine, one of the
most intriguing statesmen of the age, retired, in no very charitable mood
of mind, to his archbishopric at Rheims, where, in a fit of spleen, he
declared he would devote himself entirely to religion.

There is something exceedingly naive and amusing in Sir James Melville's
account of this "gret changement." "The Queen-mother," says he, "was blyth
of the death of King Francis, her son, because she had na guiding of him,
but only the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal, his brother, by raisoun that
the Queen, our maistress, was their sister's dochter. Sa, the Queen-mother
was content to be quit of the government of the house of Guise; and for
their cause (sake) she had a great mislyking of our Queen." Of
Montmorency, who, as soon as he heard of the illness of Francis,
commenced his journey towards the Court, he says,--"The Constable, also
chargit to come to the court, looked for na less, and seamed to be seak,
making little journees, caried in a horse-litter, drew time sae lang by
the way, that the King, in the meantime, died. Then he lap on horsbak and
cam freely to the Court and commandit, like a Constable, the men of war
that gardit the Croun, by the Duke of Guise commandement, to pack them aff
the toune. The Queen-mother was also very glaid of his coming, that by his
autority and frendship with the King of Navarre, she mycht the better
dryve the house of Guise to the door." Of Mary, who, it may well be
supposed, felt this change more than any one, Melville says,--"Our Queen
also, seeing her friends in disgrace, and knawing hirself no to be weil
liked, left the Court, and was a sorrowful widow when I took my leave at
hir, in a gentilman's house, four myle fra Orleans." To this "gentilman's
house," or chateau, in the neighbourhood of Orleans, Mary had retired to
shed in private those tears, which the death of her husband called forth.
In losing Francis, she had lost the playmate of her childhood, the husband
of her youth, and what, by many women, would be considered as serious a
loss as either, the rank and title of Queen of France. It was here,
probably, that she composed those verses to the memory of her deceased
husband, which her biographers have so frequently copied, and which are so
full of gentle and unaffected feeling.

Mary, however, was at this time a personage of too much importance in the
politics and affairs of Europe, to be left long unmolested to the
indulgence of that sincere, but commonly temporary, sorrow of a widow of
eighteen. New suitors were even now beginning to form hopes of an alliance
with her; and two of the earliest in the field were, Don Carlos of Spain,
and the King of Navarre. But Mary was determined to listen to no proposals
of a matrimonial nature, till she had arranged the plan of her future
life. France was no longer for her the country it had once been. Her
affectionate father-in-law Henry, and her amiable, though weak, husband
Francis, both of whom commanded for her the first rank in the State, were
dead; her mother would never visit her more, for her tomb had already been
erected at Rheims, and her proud uncles had been banished from the Court.
Mary had too high a spirit, and knew her own superiority too well, to
brook for a moment the haughty control of Catharine de Medicis. She felt
that not all the blood of all the merchants of Italy, could ever elevate
the Queen-Dowager to an equality with one who, as it is said she herself
once expressed it, drew her descent from a centinary line of Kings.
Catharine felt this painfully, and the more so, that when Mary once more
made her appearance at Court, she perceived, in the words of Miss Benger,
that "the charms of her conversation, her graceful address, her
captivating accomplishments, had raised the woman above the Queen."

In the mean time, by the Reformed party in Scotland, the news of the death
of Francis was received with any thing but sorrow. Knox declared
triumphantly that "his glory had perished, and that the pride of his
stubborn heart had vanished into smoke." The Lord James, her natural
brother, was immediately deputed by the Congregation to proceed to
France, to ascertain whether the Queen intended returning to her native
country, and if she did, to influence her as much as possible in favour of
the true gospel and its friends. Nor were the Catholics inactive at this
critical juncture. A meeting was held, at which were present the
Archbishop of St Andrews, the Bishops of Aberdeen, Murray, and Ross, the
Earls of Huntly, Athol, Crawfurd, and Sutherland, and many other persons
of distinction, by whom it was determined to send as their ambassador to
Mary, John Lesly, afterwards Bishop of Ross, and one of the Queen's
staunchest friends, both during her life and after it. He was of course
instructed to give her a very different account of the state of matters
from that which the Lord James would do. He was to speak to her of the
power and influence of the Catholic party; and to contrast their fidelity
both to her and to her mother, with the rebellious proceedings of those
who supported the covenant.

The Lord James went by the way of England, and Lesly sailed from Aberdeen
for Holland. Both made good speed; and Lesly arrived at Vitry in
Champagne, where Mary was then residing, only one day before the Prior of
St Andrews. He lost no time in gaining admission to the Queen; and though
there is little doubt that his views were more sincere and honourable than
those of her brother, it is at the same time very questionable whether the
advice he gave her was judicious; and it is probably fortunate that Mary's
good sense and moderation led her to reject it. Lesly commenced with
cautioning her against the crafty speeches which he knew the Lord James
was about to make to her, assuring her that his principal object was to
insinuate himself into her good graces, to obtain the chief management of
affairs, and crush effectually the old religion. The Prior, Lesly assured
her, was not so warm in the cause of the Reformers, from any conviction of
its truth, as from his wish to make it a stepping-stone for his own
ambition. For these reasons, he advised her to bring with her to Scotland
an armed force, and to land at Aberdeen, or some northern port, where the
Earl of Huntly and her other friends would join her with a numerous army,
at the head of which she might advance towards Edinburgh, and defeat at
once the machinations of her enemies. The Queen, in reply to all this,
merely desired that Lesly should remain with her till she returned to
Scotland, commanding him to write, in the mean time, to the Lords and
Prelates who sent him, to inform them of her favourable sentiments towards
them, and of her intention to come speedily home.

The day after Lesly's audience, Mary's old friend the Lord James (for it
will be remembered, that thirteen years before he had come to France with
her, and he had in the interval paid her one or two visits) obtained an
interview with his sister. He had every desire to retain the favourable
place which he flattered himself he held in her estimation; and, though so
rigid a Reformer among his Scottish friends, his conscience does not seem
to have prevented him from paying all the court he could to his Catholic
Sovereign. In the course of his conversation with her, he carefully
avoided every subject which might have been disagreeable to Mary. He
beseeched her to believe, that she would not find the remotest occasion
for any foreign troops in Scotland, as the whole nation was prepared
faithfully to obey her. This assurance was true, as it turned out; but it
is not quite certain whether the Prior of St Andrews was thinking, at the
time, so much of its truth, as of its being convenient, for various
reasons, that Mary should have no standing force, at her command, in her
own kingdom. Mary gave to her brother the same general sort of answer that
she had previously given to Lesly. At the same time, she was secretly
disposed to attribute greater weight to his arguments, and treat him with
higher consideration, for a reason which Melville furnishes. It appears
that the French noblemen, who, on the conclusion of peace with England had
returned from Scotland, had all assured her, that she would find it most
for her interest to associate in her councils the leaders of the
Reformers,--particularly the Prior himself,--the Earl of Argyle, who had
married her natural sister, the Lady Jane Stuart,--and Maitland of
Lethington.

It is worthy of notice, that, affairs of state having been discussed, the
Prior ventured to speak a word or two for his own interest. He requested
that the Earldom of Murray might be conferred on him, and the Queen
promised to attend to his request on her return to Scotland. Having thus
prudently discharged his commission, the Lord James took his leave,
visiting Elizabeth on his way home, as he had already done before passing
over into France. About the same time, many of the Scotch nobility, in
anticipation of her speedy return, came to pay their duty to the Queen,
and, among them, was the celebrated Earl of Bothwell.





Next: Mary's Return To Scotland And Previous Negotiations With Elizabeth

Previous: Mary's Marriage Personal Appearance And Popularity



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